Click any syndrome to jump to its full list of symptoms:
- Classical EDS (cEDS)
- Classical-like EDS (clEDS)
- Cardiac-Valvular EDS (cvEDS)
- Vascular EDS (vEDS)
- EDS3 or Hypermobile EDS (hEDS)
- Arthrochalasia EDS (aEDS)
- Dermatosparaxis EDS (dEDS)
- Kyphoscoliotic EDS (kEDS)
- Brittle Cornea Syndrome (BCS)
- Spondylodysplastic EDS (spEDS)
- Musculocontractural EDS (mcEDS)
- Myopathic EDS (mEDS)
- Periodontal EDS (pEDS)
Classical EDS (cEDS)
- extremely stretchy, smooth skin that is fragile and bruises easily;
- wide, flat or depressed scars; and
- joints that stretch further than they should (hypermobility).
Also frequently seen are:
- calcified bruises over pressure points, such as the elbow, and
- lipomas (fatty cysts that appear as lumps on forearms and shins).
Also possible in infants are:
- severely low muscle tone or Floppy Baby Syndrome (FBS); and
- delayed motor development.
Classical-like EDS (clEDS)
- extremely stretchy and velvety skin with no wide, flat or depressed scarring;
- generalized joint hypermobility (GJH) with or without repeated dislocations (usually in shoulders and ankles); and
- easy bruising, along with bruises larger than 3mm in diameter.
EDS3 or Hypermobile EDS
- large (knee, elbow) and small (fingers, toes) joints stretching beyond the normal range, which may lead to repeated joint dislocations and subluxations (partial dislocation).
- soft, smooth, and velvety skin with easy bruising; and
- chronic pain of the muscles and/or bones.
Although not listed as criteria on the diagnostic worksheet (created in 2017), other symptoms are nationally recognized as common to people with EDS3. Such symptoms include:
- problems with the autonomic nervous system, responsible for regulating body functions and the fight-or-flight response, such as:
- tachycardia (rapid heartbeat);
- chest pain;
- shortness of breath;
- temperature intolerance;
- difficulty swallowing;
- excessive thirst;
- light-headedness upon changing positions too quickly, specifically standing quickly from a lying down position; and
- at least seven different types headaches, which become constant;
- mitral valve prolapse;
- organ prolapse;
- teeth overcrowding;
- piezogenic papules on the heel when standing (painful bumps of fat)
- chronic disorders, such as:
- neck pain; and
- muscle weakness;
- severe muscle spasms;
- early onset osteoarthritis;
- degenerative joint disease;
- degenerative disc disease;
- debilitating pain;
- craniocervical instability (CCI, sometimes called “bobblehead”);
- bowel disorders, especially indigestion and irritable bowel syndrome; and
- psychological impairment and mood problems.
Cardiac-valvular EDS (cvEDS)
- severe progressive heart valve problems (aortic valve, mitral valve);
- skin problems, such as:
- extremely stretchy skin;
- wide, flat or depressed scars;
- thin, fragile skin;
- easy bruising; and
- overly stretchy joints, in general or restricted to small joints.
Vascular EDS (vEDS)
- thin, translucent skin that is extremely fragile and bruises easily;
- arteries and certain organs, such as the intestines and uterus, are also fragile and prone to rupture;
Typical characteristics include:
- short build;
- thin scalp hair; and
- large eyes, a thin nose, and virtually no earlobes;
- small joints, such as fingers and toes, are generally too stretchy.
Also common are:
- club foot;
- tendon and/or muscle rupture;
- acrogeria (premature aging of the skin of the hands and feet);
- early onset varicose veins;
- pneumothorax (collapse of a lung);
- recession of the gums; and
- a decreased amount of fat under the skin.
Arthrochalasia EDS (aEDS)
- severe joint stretchiness; and
- congenital hip dislocation.
Also common are:
- fragile, stretchy skin with easy bruising;
- low muscle tone or Floppy Baby Syndrome (FBS);
- kyphoscoliosis (hunchback curvature of the spine with a left/right curvature of the spine); and
- low bone density.
Dermatosparaxis EDS (dEDS)
- extremely fragile skin leading to severe bruising and scarring;
- saggy, redundant skin, especially on the face; and
Kyphoscoliosis EDS (kEDS)
- severely low muscle tone (Floppy Baby Syndrome) at birth;
- delayed motor development;
- progressive scoliosis (curvature of the spine), present from birth; and
- fragility of the tough outer coat of the eye that covers the eyeball except for the cornea.
The following may also be present:
- easy bruising;
- fragile arteries that are prone to rupture;
- unusually small corneas; and
- low bone density.
Also possible are:
- long, slender fingers (arachnodactyly);
- unusually long limbs; and
- a sunken chest (pectus excavatum) or protruding chest (pectus carinatum).
Brittle Cornea Syndrome (BCS)
- thin cornea;
- early onset progressive corneal changes that result in a spherical, slightly enlarged eye; and
- blue outer coat of the eye that covers the eyeball except for the cornea.
Spondylodysplastic EDS (spEDS)
- short build (progressive in childhood);
- low muscle tone, ranging from severe congenital (Floppy Baby Syndrome) to mild later-onset; and
- bowing of limbs.
Musculocontractural EDS (mcEDS)
- congenital multiple contractures (loss of joint motion);
- characteristic craniofacial features, which are evident at birth or in early infancy; and
- skin features, such as extreme stretchiness, easy bruising, fragility with wide, flat or depressed scars, and increased wrinkling of the palms.
Myopathic EDS (mEDS)
- congenital low muscle tone or Floppy Baby Syndrome (FBS);
- muscle atrophy, that improves with age;
- loss of joint motion in the knee, hip and elbow; and
- ankles, wrists, feet and hands that stretch more than they should.
Periodontal EDS (pEDS)
- severe and inflexible inflammation of the tissue around the teeth, often causing shrinkage of the gums and loosening of the teeth during childhood or adolescence;
- lack of attached gums, pretibial plaques; and
- family history of a first-degree relative who meets clinical criteria.